HAL Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) is an Indian fifth generation fighter aircraft. It is a single-seat, twin-engine, stealth all-weather multirole fighter Aircraft. It is being developed by aerospace industry team which consist of the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) as the design from which manufacturing carried out by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) as the primary contractor and main Assembly firm. HAL AMCA is the third fighter aircraft in the Indian origin after HAL Tejas and HAL Marut.
HAL AMCA is a multirole combat aircraft designed for air superiority, ground attack, bombing, intercepting, strike and various type of roles. It comprises of
- Supercruise stealth
- Advanced AESA Radar
- Super-maneuverability and advanced avionics to overcome suppress previous generation fighter aircraft along with many ground and maritime defenses.
Development and History of HAL AMCA
In 2008, Indian Aeronautical Development Agency began developing a multirole fighter aircraft to replace its jaguar, Mirage makes 27 fighter aircraft, the new project was developed, which was Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) to be produced domestically by Hindustan Aeronautical Limited (HAL), AMCA India.
After the Indian Air Force serious attendance to the Programme, they want MK-2 to be stealth fighter aircraft. AMCA is stated used to be 3-dimensional factors agent, designs element were found in the Russian market of 30-35, which allow simple maneuverability, superior pitching yaw performance especially at low speeds, the engines are intended.
The AMCA program evolved out of the Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) Programme, was initiated to fulfill several requirements for a common fighter to replace different types of existing fighter aircraft, which included Dassault Mirage 2000 and SEFFFRAN jaguar. In March 2010, the aircraft was renamed as Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA), Indian Air force issued the Air staff requirements for the AMCA. The first flight test of prototype aircraft was scheduled to take place by 2017. ADA is planning to use the Kaveri engine in HAL AMCA which is still in the development stage.
In October 2010, the Indian Government released 100 crores to prepare feasibility studies in 18 months. In November 2010 AOA sought 9,800 crores of funding for the development of the AMCA. The funding would be utilized to develop the new technology demonstration and seven prototypes. Initial Development cost is estimated to be between 4,000 – 5,000 crore to build 3 to 4 flying prototypes.
The aircraft along with its naval variants is intended to provide the bulk of the manned tactical airpower of the Indian Airforce and Navy over the coming decades. HAL FGFA (fifth generation fighter aircraft)
The design proposals were evaluated with five designs emerging after intensive wind tunnel testing. The proposal of design which included tail was designated with serial number 3B-014 to 3B-09.
- The initial design of AMCA was a tailless, delta wing aircraft with twin engines.
- The design was changed to include horizontal and vertical stabilizers in design 3B-01. It featured double delta
- The AMCA design based Indian stealth fighter features were further optimized by the use of airframe, shaping, composite material, edge matching fuselage, RAPS, body conforming antenna and engine by cooling, RAMS, weapons bay.
- The special coating for the poly-carbonate canopy and other stealth features, the aircraft had a weight of 16-18 tonnes with 2-tonnes of internal weapons.
- The four tonnes of internal fuel with a combat ceiling of 15 km, max speed to achieve 1.8 Mach at 11-km altitude.
The AMCA India design team led by Dr. Akhesh has completed low-speed wind tunnel testing supersonic wind tunnel testing and Radar cross-section (RCS) testing was tested between 2008 and 2014 during which all the five design proposals underwent intensive air flow testing, design development, and Improvement.
Design research and Development of the finalized design was completed by NAL from October 2012 to September 2014. Finite element Models (FFM) were built for the fuselage segments, which is also incorporated a new design for the air intakes, an element to maintain the aircraft stealth. The major technological issues include thrust vectoring and supercruising engine. Indian AMCA update & IAF AMCA latest news are given below.
There are three variants for the HAL AMCA fighter aircraft.
- Single seat AMCA Air superiority variant
- Twin seat AMCA for training
- AMCA(N) for Navy
- New generation LRDE x Band AESA radar the most advanced radar is used.
- 3D target searchability
- As per reports India Israel jointly developing radar
- The AMCA is designed with a very small radar cross-section
- Features serpentine shaped air intakes to reduce radar exposure to the fan blade which increases stealth.
- Body to be made with 80% Carbon fiber composite.
- Internal weapon bay.
- Radar absorbent coating.
- The infrared-based systems like IRST
- Self-protection jammer system to jam enemy radar-guided missiles from both air and ground.
- Missile warning system.
- Laser warning system.
- The proposed IRST system work similar to the F 35’s EOTS
- The EOTS enables the deployment of infrared missiles such as MiCA at beyond visual range distances
- EOTS is immune to jamming and is capable of providing covert long-range surveillance.
- Multispectral image countermeasures for self-defense against missiles.
- Vympel R-73 short/visual range combat missile.
- 30 mm GSH-301 cannon gun precision sight
- 8 hardpoints in stealthy configuration and 12 maximum hard points in non-stealth load.
- The aircraft will be mounted with Astra missile for long-range BVRAAM combat.
- Python 5 very short range (20KM) Air to Air.
- Helena Anti-tank missile
- Might also be capable to fire BRAHMOS and Nirbhay cruise missile which will be installed in external hard points.
Indian FGFA Update & HAL AMCA Specifications
|1 to 2|
17.2 m (56 ft. 5.25 in)
4.8 m (16 ft. 9 in)
|39.9 m² (429.5 ft²)|
17,273 kg (38,090 lb)
Max. takeoff weight
|29,465 kg (64,959 lb)|
2 × Undecided turbofan engine
|2,655 km/h (1,650 mph)|
1,750 nmi (3,241 km, 2,014 mi)
|2,875 nmi (5,324 km, 3,308 mi)|
18,044 m (59,200 ft)
Rate of climb
|13,716 m/min (45,000 ft/min)|
738 kg/m² (151.26 lb/ft²)
Feel Free to Read Astra Missile